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If the A1C test isn''re pregnant or have an uncommon form of haemoglobin (known as a haemoglobin variant) — your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes:
Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. A level between 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) and 199 mg/dL (11.0 mmol/L) is considered pre-diabetes, which puts you at greater risk of developing diabetes. A blood sugar level less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) is normal.
Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered pre-diabetes. If it''s blood sugar becomes too high for an extended period of time, it can cause damage to multiple areas of the body;
The Eyes: Diabetes can cause damage to the blood vessels within the eyes which can cause cataracts, glaucoma, retinopathy and in severe cases even blindness. A diabetic retinopathy can be managed by laser eye treatment, however this will only preserve the sight you have and not return sight that has been lost. It is important to have regular check ups with an optician to monitor any changes to the eye.
The Nervous System: Too much glucose in the bloodstream can cause damage to the small blood vessels within nerves. This can cause numbness, tingling, and pain especially in the hands and feet. One may lose sensation in these areas, which can lead to sores, and possibly amputation. If it affects the nerves in the digestive system then the patient may suffer from nausea and vomiting, diarrhoea or constipation.
The Heart: Those with type 2 diabetes are up to five times more likely to develop some form of heart disease. extended periods of time with badly controlled glucose levels can cause atherosclerosis, a narrowing of the vessels, leading to a poor blood supply to the heart, ultimately causing angina. If the blood vessel is blocked it will cause either a heart attack or stroke, dependant on where the vessel leads to.
The Kidneys: High blood sugar levels make it much harder on your kidneys to filter blood, and the kidneys will eventually become overworked. This will cause the kidneys to become blocked and leaky, reducing their efficiency. In severe cases it can eventually cause kidney failure. 
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At this moment in time there is no current cure for diabetes, there is only treatment available to help keep the blood glucose levels as normal as they possibly could be in order to help prevent further complication later on in life. Medications will not be the first choice for your GP to refer you onto, first of all they will recommend a change in diet, and increase in physical activity and a decrease in weight to help manage the diabetes without the need for drugs.
Given that type 2 diabetes will usually get worse over time, those with type 2 diabetes will eventually be placed on some kind of medication to help with the management of their diabetes. There are a number of different medications that can be used to control blood glucose levels but the most commonly known is Metformin.
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Metformin works by affecting the amount of glucose your liver can release into your bloodstream, as well as making the body''s risk of developing hypoglycaemia, as well as some other side effects such as diarrhoea, weight gain and nausea. 
Glitazones work by essentially making the body''s blood sugar is <70 mg/dL before exercise, give them 15 grams of a carbohydrate snack, recheck in 15 minutes, and if above 70 mg/dL continue with exercise. If a patient''s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 8th ed. Philadelphia:Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2010.
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